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Housing Authority Nearby. Dallas County Housing Authority. Stemmons, Dallas , TX Dallas Housing Authority. Hampton Rd. Balch Springs , TX Mesquite HAP Program. Public housing was only built with the blessing of the local government, and projects were almost never built on suburban greenfields , but through regeneration of older neighborhoods.
The destruction of tenements and eviction of their low-income residents consistently created problems in nearby neighborhoods with "soft" real estate markets. Houses, apartments or other residential units are usually subsidized on a rent-geared-to-income RGI basis. Some communities have now embraced a mixed income, with both assisted and market rents, when allocating homes as they become available. The federal Housing and Urban Development HUD department's HOPE VI program addressed concerns of distressed properties and blighted superblocks with revitalization and funding projects for the renewal of public housing to decrease its density and allow for tenants with mixed income levels.
Other attempts to solve these problems include the  Section 8 Housing Program, which encourages the private sector to construct affordable homes, and subsidizes public housing. This assistance can be "project-based", subsidizing properties, or "tenant-based", which provides tenants with a voucher , accepted by some landlords. More recently, non single-family units, such as condominiums and townhouses are being built which also fall into this category.
It is popularly called an "apartamento" English: apartment , whether or not its resident owns the unit or lives it as a renter. Increasingly, however, public housing developments are being built that consist of other than the traditional multi-family dwellings with all exterior grounds consisting of shared outside area, for example, public housing may consist of single family garden apartments units. Finally, a home that is located in neither an urbanizacion nor of a public housing development is said to be located in and to be a part of a barrio.
In this sense, urbanizaciones as well as public housing developments as well as one or several "barrios" in the popular sense may be located in one of these official geographic areas. The public-owned housing system was established when the Communist Party of China started the planned economy in the s. Such housing buildings were funded by the central government's budget and were invested, administrated and distributed by state-own enterprises.
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The households were usually the employees of the enterprises and their family, and were subject to pay the rent at a very low price. The size and the type of room the households get were depending on their job title or administrative level. However, the central government was difficult to continuously invest in those public housing due to its massive cost and low rent; also, the distribution policy that was aimed to be " equalitarianism " results in the misbehavior of corruption.
Chinese government commercialized the housing market after the economic reform started in Those "Old Public Houses" were unable to be merchandised in principle, but the household can sell it after buying the ownership, and such transactions were subject to be reviewed by local housing authorities and State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration authorities.
The concept of the low-cost rental housing can be traced to a policy statement [ clarification needed ] , but did not truly take off until due to limited funding and administrative problems. The provision of more affordable housing is one of the key components of China's Twelfth Five-year Plan, which targets the construction of 36 million homes by That program's costs will be split between the private and public sector and are estimated at five trillion yuan by Chinese investment bank CICC.
In Hong Kong, public housing is one of the major housing policies of the government. Nearly half of Hong Kong's 3. Indonesia has undertaken One Million Houses program for low-income people. The program has been implementing since to achieve an ambitious target of building 10 million houses.
The proportion of the housing is 70 percent for low-income people and 30 percent for non low-income people. This program is a joint movement between the Central Government, regional governments, real estate developers and the community. The program is targeted to reach one million housing units annually. In Singapore, the public housing program, particularly the planning and development of new public housing and the allocation of rental units and resale of existing ownership units, is managed by the Housing and Development Board.
Day-to-day management of public housing communities has largely been delegated to Town Councils headed by the local members of parliament.
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Most of the residential housing developments in Singapore are publicly governed and developed. Most of the residents in public housing are tenants under a year lease agreement. Public housing was an important issue right from the foundation of the Republic of German-Austria in The population was faced with a great deal of uncertainty particularly as regards food and fuel.
This led to a significant number of less affluent people to move to the periphery of towns, often building makeshift homes to be closer to where they could grow food. They were called Siedler settlers. As the political situation became stabilised with foundation of the First Austrian Republic in September , the Siedler movement started creating formal organizations like the Austrian Association for Settlements and Small Gardens. Part of their programme was the provision of decent homes for the Viennese working class who made up the core of their supporters.
Hence the German word Gemeindebau plural: Gemeindebauten for "municipality building". In Austria, it refers to residential buildings erected by a municipality, usually to provide low-cost public housing. These have been an important part of the architecture and culture of Vienna since the s. Social housing is a responsibility of the regions in Belgium. The regions don't directly own the houses, semi-private social housing corporations do.
The government regulates and mostly finances this corporations. Below a certain income limit, people are eligible for social housing. Because there is a major shortage of social housing in Belgium, other priority conditions are often imposed, such as having children to care for. This is much lower than neighbouring countries such as the Netherlands and France. As of Flanders , Wallonia and Brussels are responsible for For the people on the waiting list there are other possibilities such as subsidies and sociale rental agencies in Flanders.
In Denmark, public housing is called Almennyttigt Boligbyggeri and is owned and administered by approximately self-governing, democratic and non-profit organizations by and for the tenants themselves. A membership of a housing organization is usually required to obtain a rental and they are granted with regard to length of membership. Although the buildings are owned and administered by self-governing and economically independent organizations, the State of Denmark is strongly regulating public housing in the country. Over the years, these regulations have created many 'especially vulnerable residential areas' — so called "ghettos" — within the country.
The Danish Public Housing has never had any income restrictions, but in recent years new state regulations has made it mandatory for several of them to favor fully employed renters and disfavor unemployed or part-time employed people. This is a relatively new effort by the state to counter the ghettofication, which is now an officially recognized problem countrywide.
As in Sweden, state and municipal policies carried out throughout the first decade of the 21st century, has led to an increased privatization of public housing. In many areas, residents have been offered to buy their own flats, thereby effectively changing the status of the property. The privatization of public housing was initiated as part of an ideological program by the right wing governments of the early 21st century and was launched a few years after the closure of the former Ministry of Housing Affairs in The earliest public housing project in Finland was in Helsinki.
In , four wooden houses designed by the architect A.
Nyberg were built on Kirstinkuja formerly Kristiinankatu for the city's workers. The residents were mainly working-class families with several children. The apartments had an average of five people per room, sometimes up to eight. The tiny apartments were equipped with running water, a pantry and an attic cupboard.
Every apartment had its own toilet in the cellar. Electric lighting was installed in After World War II , the population increased at a rate previously unknown, the rural exodus increased, while war damage had reduced the number of houses in many cities. Rental prices dramatically rose, and the government made a law in to block them, effectively ending the economic benefits of housing investment. Rents were gradually deregulated until debate in the s led to the current rental law of theoretically balancing landlord and tenant relations.
However, there was a major homelessness crisis in the winter of —4 and the necessary laws were gradually mobilized producing high levels of construction almost continuously from the s. Social landlords were a major source of expertise as well as construction actors with links to national and local bodies. It is incorrect to refer to French social housing as public housing. The origins of French social housing lie in the private sector, with the first State aid provided to limited-profit companies by the loi Siegfried in The originally socialist idea was promoted by some French employers in the 2nd half of the 19th century.
Public housing companies followed before the Great War. The state had the funds and the legal means to acquire the land and could provide some advantages to the companies that then built its huge housing complexes of hundreds of apartments. Quality was also effectively regulated, resulting in decent or even top quality housing for the standard of the s and s. The construction of HLMs were subject to much political debate. Much smaller developments are now the norm. This housing is now generally referred to as 'l'habitat social' a slightly wider sphere than just housing.
Part of the funding can be provided by employer-employee groups to provide housing for local employees. While they succeeded in giving lower-income families a place to live in the drive to provide popular housing, this system also led to the creation of suburban ghettos, with a problem of disrepair. There has been a long-term problem of gradual impoverishment of social tenants  There, deprived strata of the population, mostly of immigrant origin and suffering massive under-employment, might in the past have been left to simmer away from the more affluent urban centres, sometimes becoming rife with social tensions and violence.
This affects a minority of social housing but has a high profile and still produces serious tension. Tackling this problem at its roots is all but simple, and social mix policies can break up populations seen as difficult by redevelopment. This has not had the hoped for results. It has also been sought to resolve the problem of access to the system by disadvantaged people by a new system where certain groups can apply to court to be housed if refused, the 'right to housing'.
This tends to intensify the controversy over social housing allocation, who should be housed. In any event, the system is certainly effective in producing construction, although not with the excesses seen in the recent credit crunch elsewhere. Between and Germany was the site of innovative and extensive municipal public housing projects, mostly in Berlin , Hamburg, Cologne and Frankfurt am Main.
These housing estates Siedlungen , were made necessary by the dreadful living conditions of pre-war urban tenements. The right to healthy housing was written into the Weimar Constitution , but few homes were built until the economy stabilised in The new German housing estates were low-rise, no more than five stories, and in suburban settings. Residents were provided access to light, air, and sun.
The size, shape, orientation and architectural style of Germany's public housing were informed by the recent experience of the Viennese, the Dutch, the anti-urban Garden City Movement in Britain, the new industrialized mass-production and pre-fabrication building techniques, the novel use of steel and glass, and by the progressive-liberal policies of the Social Democrats.
May ran his own sizable research facility to investigate, for instance, air-flow in various floorplan configurations, construction techniques, etc. Beyond technical research May also published two magazines and embarked on a significant public-relations project, with films and classes and public exhibitions, to make Neues Bauen acceptable to the public. In the late s the principles of equal access to "Licht, Luft und Sonne" light, air and sun and the social effects of a state-guaranteed Existenzminimum "minimum subsistence level" became a matter of lively popular debate all over Germany.
One indirect result of this publicity was the American housing movement: a young Catherine Bauer attended one of May's conferences in , and wrote her influential book Modern Housing based on research done in Frankfurt and with Dutch architect JJP Oud. Increasing pressure from the rising Nazis brought this era to an end in A majority of the German public housing experts had social democrat or communist sympathies and were forced out of the country.
In East Germany , the communist administration built monolithic Plattenbau apartment blocks and estates. Most new residential buildings from the s onward were built in this style, as it was a quick and relatively cheap way to solve the country's severe housing shortage, which had been caused by wartime bombing raids and the large influx of German refugees from further east.
It was the main housing type built in the Socialist era. From to , panel flats were built in Hungary. About 2 million people, about one fifth of the country's total population , live in these flats. The Hungarian government and local municipalities began a renovation program during the s. In the program they have insulated these buildings, replaced the old doors and windows with multi-layer thermo glass, renewed the heating system and colored the buildings in a more pleasant way.
In Ireland, public housing and halting sites sites used by semi-nomadic Traveller communities have been built by local authorities and are known as Local Authority Accommodation. Dublin Corporation and the former Dublin County Council provided the lion's share of Irish local authority housing, with County Longford having the largest ratio of local authority to private housing in the state.
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The government has promoted tenant purchase on favourable terms, and many former social housing areas are now completely or almost completely privately owned. Housing associations now play a significant role in social housing provision. As the Irish state's ability to borrow is diminished government policy favours an increased role for private financing of housing associations instead of capital grants for local authorities. In the Netherlands , the rent for the cheaper rental homes is kept low through governmental oversight and regulation.
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These types of homes are known as sociale huurwoningen. In practice this is accomplished by non-profit private housing foundations or associations toegelaten instellingen. Due to frequent mergers the number of these organizations dropped to around They manage 2. The majority of the low-rent apartments in the Netherlands are owned by such organisations. Since the policy changed in the social housing organizations have become financially independent focusing on their role as social entrepreneurs.
In most Dutch municipalities there came to exist a certain minimum capacity of social housing throughout the last decades. In many cities such as Amsterdam , The Hague , Rotterdam and Utrecht the percentage of social housing approaches or even passes 50 percent. The public financial supervision is done by the central fund for housing Centraal Fonds Volkshuisvesting. The Dutch housing policy is based on a concept of universal access to affordable housing for all and the prevention of segregation.
The skyline of many Romanian cities became dominated by standardized apartment blocks under the former communist government's policy of tower bloc construction. Beginning in , systematization consisted largely of the demolition and reconstruction of existing villages, towns, and cities, in whole or in part, with the stated goal of turning Romania into a "multilaterally developed socialist society".
In , 2. Subsequent to post-communist privatization, the homeownership rate in this form of housing reached of On the other hand, HOAs were challenged from outside by non-effective mechanisms to address their internal problems, such as non-existent fast court procedures against defaulting, poor financial assistance to socially disadvantaged households and a private sector unprepared to take on condominium management. In the Soviet Union , most of the houses built after World War II were usually 3—5 stories high, with small apartments.
In these boroughs, the goal was saving space and creating as many apartments as possible. Construction starting in the s favored 9- and story concrete panel municipal housing in major cities, 7—12 stories in smaller urban areas. Spaniards' reluctance to home rental, and government spending cuts in the s, reduced rented public housing in Spain to a minimum.
Rented public houses were relatively common in the Franco era — With the advent of democracy and the Constitution , the management of social housing depended mostly on the autonomous regions. This resulted in a wide variety of laws, which make the issue highly dependent on the region. Major parts of Spanish cities have been expanded [ citation needed ] in the last 20 years with projects heavily dependent on public and collective housing projects, which has stressed its importance inside the main architecture schools, that have answered the challenge with the development of several specialized courses and formation plans, such as the Madrid UPM - ETH Zurich combined MCH Master in Collective Housing.
In difference towards its counterparts in for instance Great Britain, the Swedish Public Housing has never had any income restrictions. Although not carrying out housing nor acquisitional projects in recent times, the policies lead to a ubiquitous presence of publicly owned buildings throughout the cities of Sweden, including attractive urban areas, with a rather wide range of income among the tenants.
Policies carried out in the Swedish cities throughout the first decade of the 21st century have led to the tenants of public housing having bought the publicly owned buildings in which they live, which in turn has led to a significant decrease of publicly owned buildings in attractive urban areas, subsequently leading to an increased development of processes related to gentrification. In the United Kingdom public housing is often referred to by the British public as " council housing " and "council estates", based on the historical role of district and borough councils in running public housing.
Mass council house building began in about in order to replace older and dilapidated properties. Housing was a major policy area under Wilson's Labour government , to , with an accelerated pace of new building, as there was still a great deal of unfit housing needing replacement. Tower blocks, first built in the s, featured prominently in this era.
Allowing for demolitions, 1. Since the s, non-profit housing associations have been operating an increasing share of social housing properties in the United Kingdom. From they have also been known as Registered Social Landlords RSLs , and public housing has been referred to as "social housing" to encompass both councils and RSLs. Despite being non-profit based, RSLs generally charge higher rents than councils.
However, the Westminster Government introduced a "rent re-structuring" policy for housing associations in England in , which aimed to bring council and RSL rents into line in England by Local authorities have been discouraged from building council housing since following the election of Conservative leader Margaret Thatcher as prime minister. The Parker Morris standard was abolished for those that were built, resulting in smaller room sizes and fewer facilities.
The Right to Buy was introduced, resulting in the move of some of the best stock from public tenanted to private owner occupation. Since the year , "choice-based lettings" CBL  have been introduced to help ensure social housing was occupied speedily as tenants moved. This can still favour the local over the non-local prospective tenant. In a number of local authority areas, due to the shortage of council housing, three out of four properties may be designated for priority cases those living in poor overcrowded conditions, with medical or welfare needs, or needing family support or homeless applicants in order to meet the councils' legal obligations to rehouse people in need.
The percentage of properties set aside for vulnerable groups will vary dependent on the demand for council housing in the area. All local authorities have a Housing Strategy to ensure that council houses are let fairly and fulfil the council's legal obligations; deal with people in need; and contribute to sustainability of housing estates, neighbourhood regeneration, and social inclusion.
The — Labour Government wished to move council housing away from local authority management. Not all council property could be transferred, as in some local authorities, their housing stock was in poor condition and had a capital value less than the remaining debts from construction costs—in effect, the council stock was in negative equity.